Environmentalism Unbound | The MIT Press
This fragmented approach prevents an awareness of how these issues are also environmental issues. After tracing a history of environmental perspectives on land and resources, city and countryside, and work and industry, Gottlieb focuses on three compelling examples of this new approach to social and environmental change.
The first involves a small industry dry cleaning and the debate over pollution prevention approaches; the second involves a set of products janitorial cleaning supplies that may be hazardous to workers; and the third explores the obstacles and opportunities presented by community or regional approaches to food supply in the face of an increasingly globalized food system.
Robert Gottlieb. A call for a broadened environmental movement that addresses issues of everyday life.
New pressure groups formed, notably Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth. In the s, the Chipko movement was formed in India; influenced by Mahatma Gandhi , they set up peaceful resistance to deforestation by literally hugging trees leading to the term "tree huggers" with the slogan "ecology is permanent economy. By the mids, many felt that people were on the edge of an environmental catastrophe.
The Back-to-the-land movement started to form and ideas of environmental ethics joined with anti-Vietnam War sentiments and other political issues. These individuals lived outside of society and started to take on some of the more radical environmental theories such as deep ecology. Around this time more mainstream environmentalism was starting to show force with the signing of the Endangered Species Act in and the formation of CITES in This became an important part of the Deep Green ideology.
Throughout the rest of the history of environmentalism there have been debates and arguments between more radical followers of this Deep Green ideology and more mainstream environmentalists. Contemporary environmentalists are often described as being split into three groups: Dark, Light, and Bright Greens. Light Greens see protecting the environment first and foremost as a personal responsibility.
They fall in on the reformist end of the spectrum introduced above, but light Greens do not emphasize environmentalism as a distinct political ideology, or even seek fundamental political reform. Instead they often focus on environmentalism as a lifestyle choice. In contrast, Dark Greens believe that environmental problems are an inherent part of industrialized capitalism, and seek radical political change. As discussed earlier, 'dark greens' tend to believe that dominant political ideologies sometimes referred to as industrialism are corrupt and inevitably lead to consumerism, alienation from nature and resource depletion.
The division between light and dark greens was visible in the fighting between Fundi and Realo factions of the German Green Party. Since the Dark Greens often embrace strands of communist and marxist philosophies, the motto "Green is the new red. More recently, a third group may be said to have emerged in the form of Bright Greens.
This group believes that radical changes are needed in the economic and political operation of society in order to make it sustainable, but that better designs, new technologies and more widely distributed social innovations are the means to make those changes—and that we can neither shop nor protest our way to sustainability. It forgoes the bleakness of protest and dissent for the energizing confidence of constructive solutions. Free market environmentalism is a theory that argues that the free market, property rights, and tort law provide the best tools to preserve the health and sustainability of the environment.
This is in sharp contrast to the most common approach of looking to legislative government intervention to prevent destruction of the environment. It considers environmental stewardship to be natural, as well as the expulsion of pollutors and other aggressors through individual and class action.
Environmental organizations can be global, regional, national or local; they can be government-run or private NGO. Several environmental organizations, among them the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Environmental Defense Fund, specialize in bringing lawsuits. Other environmentalist groups, such as the National Wildlife Federation , World Wide Fund for Nature, Friends of the Earth, the Nature Conservancy, and the Wilderness Society, disseminate information, participate in public hearings, lobby, stage demonstrations, and purchase land for preservation.
Smaller groups, including Wildlife Conservation International, conduct research on endangered species and ecosystems. More radical organizations, such as Greenpeace, Earth First! The underground Earth Liberation Front engages in the clandestine destruction of property, the release of caged or penned animals, and other acts of sabotage.
On an international level, concern for the environment was the subject of a UN conference in Stockholm in , attended by nations. Environmentalism has occasionally been the topic of song lyrics since the s.
Recently, a record label has emerged out of a partnership with Warner Music, which places environmental issues at its foundation. Green Label Records produces CDs using biodegradable paper, donates the proceeds of CD sales to environmental organizations, and plans tours using alternative fuels and carbon-neutral philosophies. It seeks to build a network of environmentally conscious musicians and music fans across North America. Within the last twenty years, commercially successful films with an environmentalism theme have been released theatrically and made by the major Hollywood studios.
Some notable films with an environmental message include: .
Many anime movies by Hayao Miyazaki also suggest an environmentalist message. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation.
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